Last August the Fair Labor Association (FLA) conducted audits in two of Apple’s final assembly plants in China. These factories are both owned by Quanta–Tech-Com in Shanghai manufactures Mac computers and employs roughly 32,000 people and Tech-Full in Changshu manufactures iPods and employs nearly 5,000 people.
The findings from these audits were released today, one day after Apple’s announcement to ban benzene and n-hexane from final assembly or “first-tier” suppliers. Putting aside these two chemicals, the audit findings bring to light a number of other serious health and safety concerns that exist in the Chinese mega-factories in which Apple manufactures its products. While Apple has spent the past year putting “corrective action plans” in place for the findings, a number of major issues, particularly concerning worker hours, worker compensation, worker representation on environmental health and safety (EHS) committees, and chemical risk remain issues in these factories.
Here is a summary of some of the Health and Safety findings:
Tech-Com (Quanta Shanghai)
No. 68, Sanzhuang Rd., Songjiang Export Processing Zone, Shanghai, China
Poor Air Quality
The scope of indoor air quality testing was not compliant with the local authority’s requirements. The testing scope missed several significant occupational hazards. Additionally, while isopropyl alcohol was widely in use, there was not an exhaust ventilation system provided. Finally, there was no extraction system provided for the heat seal packaging machines, which adversely effects the air quality in the working environment.
Insufficient Protective Gear
Most of the protective masks currently in use were not certified, as per legal requirements, and were not assessed for their effectiveness against VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds). Additionally, the emergency shower and eyewash in the chemical warehouse were not designed for easy access and use in case of emergency.
Insufficient Chemical Safety Information
50% of the MSDS (material safety data sheets) for chemical substances in use were incomplete or had unreliable information about chemicals, ingredients, and chemical composition.
Improper Storage of Hazardous Materials
The chemical storage sections in production areas are not totally isolated from offices and rest areas. Additionally, some flammable/toxic substances were stored under chairs, on desk, and under assembly lines.
Auditors were not granted access to the entire site; therefor the risk assessment for occupational hazard control was not completed in all labs and buildings.
Tech-Full (Quanta ChangShu)
No. 8, JinZhou Rd., Hightech Industrial park, Changshu Economic Development Zone, Changshu, Jiangsu, China
Insufficient Chemical Safety Information & Monitoring
The factory was adequately monitoring occupation hazard risks in the following instances:
- Only 9 major chemicals were included in this assessment. Several significant occupational hazards were not identified in the risk assessment for occupational hazard control (e.g., organic tin, methanol);
- 16 out of 25 chemicals with significant occupational hazards were not included in the risk assessment scope;
- There was no lab analysis of chemical ingredients, especially volatile organic compounds (VOCs), to determine the scope of occupational hazards when Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) were incomplete.
- 80% of the MSDS for chemical substances in use were incomplete or had unreliable information about chemicals, ingredients, or the chemical composition of the contents.
- Only dust, isopropyl alcohol (IPA), cyclohexane, xylene were identified as occupational hazards and measured annually. The other 10+ occupational hazards were not monitored or measured (e.g. organic tin, methanol).
Poor Air Quality
The local exhaust ventilation pipes were not used or maintained properly. This has an adverse effect on indoor air quality. Additionally, the scope of indoor air quality testing was not compliant with local authority’s requirements. The testing scope missed several significant occupational hazards and the report does not include important information (product, number/type of machines running during the test, raw material detail, etc.) that may have a direct effect on test results.
FLA auditors were not granted access to conduct an assessment for occupational hazard control in Buildings C1 and C2.
To read the detailed assessments for each Quanta factory please see FLA’s website.
This spring, Green America’s End Smartphone Sweatshops campaign, in partnership with China Labor Watch (CLW), called on Apple to remove toxic chemicals including benzene and n-hexane from its supplier factories in China. Only five months into the campaign, Apple announced in August that it would “explicitly prohibit the use of benzene and n-hexane” at 22 of its final-assembly supplier factories.
“If you’ve ever wondered if signing a petition can really make a difference, now you know. With 23,000 signatures since March of 2014, we’ve been able to push one of the biggest companies in the world to change its practices,” says Elizabeth O’Connell, Green America’s campaigns director.
A known carcinogen, benzene can cause leukemia, a blood cancer, and leukopenia, a dangerously low white blood cell count.The chemical n-hexane is a neurotoxicant that can cause nerve damage and paralysis after long-term exposure. As reported in the April/May Green American, workers in electronics supplier factories—including those making Apple products—use both chemicals to clean touch screens. Undercover CLW representatives have found such workers using little to no protective equipment, with inadequate safety training.
In a statement released August 13th, Lisa Jackson, former EPA Secretary and current Apple vice-president of environmental affairs, stated that Apple had investigated 22 final-assembly supplier factories that make iPhones, iPads, iPods, and Mac computers, “and found no evidence of workers’ health being put at risk from exposure to [benzene and n-hexane].”
O’Connell, however, says the campaign’s work is not over. “Benzene and n-hexane are still allowed in factories that produce the components for iPhones and iPads,” she sas. “Beyond benzene and n-hexane, there are thousands of chemicals used in electronics manufacturing—some which are largely untested—and many chemicals used by Apple suppliers remain undisclosed. Apple needs to do more to protect workers.”
With production set to ramp up this fall with the release of the iPhone 6, Green America and CLW are now calling on Apple to extend the chemical ban to substances other than benzene and n-hexane, and to all of its supplier factories, including early-production facilities where chemical usage and safety measures are less controlled.
In July, the campaign also began targeting Samsung, after news broke that five children below the age of 16 and many minors between 16 and 18 were found working in Shinyang Electronics Co., Ltd., one of its Chinese suppliers. Workers are also exposed in Samsung’s factories to toxins like benzene and n-hexane.
This July, Green America attended the Congressional Renewable Energy Expo on Capitol Hill to tell policy makers and clean energy industry leaders all about the Clean Energy Victory Bonds Act of 2014. The bill, which has been introduced to the House of Representatives by Zoe Lofgren (D-CA), seeks to provide new financing for clean energy projects including wind, solar, and geothermal, as well as home and commercial energy efficiency technologies. The Environmental and Energy Study Institute (EESI) stopped by our booth to ask us a few questions about CEVBs. Watch their interview below, read more about the bill here, and contact your Representative and urge him or her to support clean energy in the US.
As students get ready to go back to school, some of them are also getting ready to embark upon a new year of greening their campuses. Green America editorial fellow Sari Amiel discovered five inspiring examples of how students are making their campuses more socially just and environmentally sustainable. Every Monday and Wednesday from now through August 27th, we’ll post one of Sari’s stories here on our blog.
At Oberlin College, April brings warm breezes, vibrant flowers, and golden sunlight—as well as a spirited contest that pits one dorm against another to see which can use the fewest resources. The Oberlin Ecolympics compares dorm-wide reductions in electricity and water use, with the most eco-savvy dorms winning prizes that include ice cream socials and infrastructure improvements, such as the installation of water refill stations.
“Ultimately, becoming sustainable will involve significant lifestyle changes on behalf of pretty much everyone,” says Oberlin Ecolympics Intern Abraham Rowe. “It’s important to have people actually attempt to make some sort of changes to their lifestyle, and then [see] what it feels like to live like that.”
Started in 2002, when several Oberlin students invented a building “dashboard” to monitor their energy and water use, the campus-wide contest takes place over three weeks. The contest is still guided by an online dashboard similar to the 2002 prototype, which monitors buildings and informs residents about their resource use. The contests also uses physical displays to keep the spirit of competition high.
Oberlin’s Office of Environmental Sustainability advertises, plans, and oversees the coordination, planning, and marketing of the campus’s Ecolympics efforts, which also involve educational events. In 2014, Oberlin’s 36 Ecolympics events included movie screenings, a local arboretum cleanup, a visit from animal rights activist Gene Bauer, and a workshop and concert hosted by a band that uses only vegetable oil to power its truck.The Office of Environmental Sustainability incentivized student attendance by rewarding the dorm that had the highest percentage of resident participation at the events.
Sustainability Coordinator Bridget Flynn says that the Ecolympics is an “extremely meaningful” competition, due to its student engagement and its tangible results: In 2014, Oberlin trimmed its electricity use during the event by 13,182 kWh, which saved $1,054, and the campus reduced its overall water use by 55,889 gallons, or $559. Rowe values Ecolympics because, once the contest is over, electricity and water use continue to decrease across campus, he says.
In addition, the competition has infected the city of Oberlin, whose public schools held their first resource reduction in conjunction with Ecolympics in 2014. One public school reduced its electricity use by 36.7 percent, an impressive feat given that only 50 to 60 percent of average US building’s electricity use is discretionary, or under the control of the building’s occupants.
Ecolympics is no longer confined to Oberlin’s borders. The students who first invented the Ecolympics dashboard went on to found the Lucid Design Group, which develops resource-monitoring building software for small businesses and Fortune 500 companies alike. In 2010, Lucid helped make this contest national. Called the Campus Conservation Nationals competition, it runs every spring at 119 colleges and universities across the country. Oberlin participates each year, and simultaneously continues to run its dorm-wide contest. Last year, the Campus Conservation Nationals judges ranked Oberlin as a “top-five water reducer.”
Both Rowe and Flynn advise schools that are interested in Ecolympics to check out the many resources that Campus Conservation Nationals offers. Environmental Dashboard Project Leader Danny Rosenberg, a 2012 Oberlin graduate, stresses the importance of involving the entire student body in the competition. “Try to tie [the competition] in with a broader effort to engage the college community on sustainability,” says Rosenberg. “Try to really build a culture around sustainability.”
Preventable Factory Fire in China Once Again Not Prevented
Co-written by Joey Friedman
75 Chinese workers at the Kunshan Zhongrong Metal Production Co. perished in a factory explosion on Saturday, August 2nd. Zhongrong makes automotive parts for General Motors Co. and other auto makers. Dense with dust, its believed the unfiltered air combusted upon contact with a heat source. Like many unfortunate factory fires, this could have been prevented by installing a simple ventilation system.
In an attempt to avoid responsibility, few head employees were willing to speak or take action after the explosion. Factory Chairman Wu Ji-tao was not found within reach for comment. The factory’s online contact, Zhang Ying refused to answer any questions regarding the blast. According to a report by The New York Times, China’s top work-safety agency pointed to local government to take on responsibility for the tragic event. Government officials are currently refusing to comment. Citic Dicastal Wheel Manufacturing Co., wheel-makers that subcontract orders to Zhongrong is also not available for comment.
General Motors deflects its relationship with the factory, making clear that is sources its parts through Citic Dicastal, its tier 1 supplier, and has no direct relationship with Zhongrong, this tier 2 supplier.
Of the more than 260 people onsite at the time of the explosion on early Saturday morning, 75 have died and nearly 200 are injured.
Combustible dust is a widely known manufacturing hazard. As a metal polishing plant, Zhongrong should have had a ventilation system in place before becoming operational. As the Wall Street Journal reported, without a ventilation system these explosions can happen without warning. ]
This incident helps to bring greater attention to the problem of poor ventilation systems and insufficient safety trainings in Chinese factories. It took two disasters within Apple supplier factories in China for Apple to finally “order” the factories to adopt new and safer techniques to prevent metal combustion fires, in 2012. The order would seem more sufficient if Chinese factories weren’t so well known for their questionable enforcement.
Apple is nearing its launch of the new iPhone 6, a product heavily in demand and gaining high expectations. Sources revealed that the crave for the new product is resulting in a rush to hire new factory employees, extend work hours, and increase of hazardous exposure for workers. Do our gadget-grubbing demands influence the unsafe conditions and harsh treatment of overseas factory workers?
Take action by signing a petition to Apple, to protect workers making the anticipated iPhone 6.
On Monday, July 14, Citibank agreed to pay a $7 billion settlement related to sub-prime mortgage-backed securities sold to investors during the lead up to the financial crisis of 2008. The settlement results from a Justice Department effort to crack down on the complex and risky behaviors that led Wall Street to the brink of collapse in 2008. While the overwhelming majority of Americans want to hold bankers accountable for gambling on peoples’ livelihoods, the recent settlements don’t represent a real victory for the population. If we break down the structure of the most recent settlement, it’s easy to see why.
Citi agreed to pay a total of $7 billion dollars to end a DOJ inquiry into its involvement in the financial crisis. Citi will pay $4.5 billion in cash, and $2.5 billion to provide relief to struggling homeowners and low-income tenants in the form of restructured mortgages. Of the $4.5 billion cash payment, $4 billion will go to the Justice Department as a civil penalty. The other $500 million will be paid as fees to state Attorneys General and to the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC).
There are a few reasons why this settlement looks more like a PR stunt than Citi actually trying to right any wrongdoing. First of all, the majority of the settlement will go to the agencies doing the prosecution, pretty much to spend at their discretion. The prosecuting agencies do not represent the true victims of the housing crisis, the ones who were aggressively sold mortgages that they had no chance of affording a few years down the line. The lion’s share of the settlement, in effect, settles little more than legal fees.
Citigroup can count the loan modifications it will make for sub-prime borrowers under the government Home Affordable Modification Program (HAMP) as part of the settlement. This program awards incentive payments to the bank to modify bad loans. Citi will actually receive payments for abiding by the terms of the settlement they reached with the government. The assistance to homeowners, those most affected by the financial crisis, will therefore be subsidized.
And as if the taxpayer hasn’t already paid enough for the egregious actions of large financial institutions leading up to the financial crisis, any mortgage principal reductions to homeowners from Citi will come in the form of earned income for tax purposes. Any supposed relief homeowners enjoy will be taxed as income, in many cases negating any relief in the first place. This is due to the expiration of the Mortgage Debt Relief Forgiveness Act, which Congress has failed to renew. Without this essential protection, the settlement might actually leave some borrowers worse off.
The settlement reached between Citi and the Department of Justice doesn’t even address the losses incurred by investors who purchased securities backed by sub-prime mortgages in the lead-up to 2008.
At the end of the day, Citi will pay $7 billion to get regulators and investigators off its back. The settlement comes after JP Morgan Chase reached a similar agreement to the tune of $13 billion last year. The DOJ collects more cash than it knows what to do with, the mega-banks continue to gamble with real peoples’ homes (increasingly in the rental market that grew as a result of the crash), and tax-paying citizens are left to foot the bill. Nobody involved with the packaging and sale of toxic mortgages will see the inside of a jail cell, and all parties involved will move forward as if the mess didn’t occur in the first place. If you’re tired of the illusion of justice in our legal and financial systems, Green America urges you to take the time and tell Eric Holder to re-prioritize the prosecution of those involved mortgage fraud. Unless the people stand up and demand justice, there will be nothing to deter mega-banks like Citi from driving the economy to the brink of collapse all over again.
Co-authored by Joey Friedman
Of late, most of Apple’s labor scandals have stemmed from supplier factories in China. Today’s Wall Street Journal, however, points to a labor problem much closer to home. On Monday July 21, 20,000 hourly workers in California filed suit against Apple for workplace violations.
The case, originally filed back in 2011 by four Apple employees, now voices the position of 20,000 employees claiming Apple’s violation of wage and hour laws. Reports have been made that these employees were denied lunch breaks, rest breaks, and final paychecks while working for Apple. Other claims broadly illustrate mistreatment within the workplace. Multiple reports reflect that if certain labor policies were discussed among employees they became at risk for being “fired, sued or disciplined.”
The claims made by the thousands of California-based staff members exhibits behaviors of a hostile and threatening work environment. It is possible that such a harsh relationship between staff members and management is what has kept these employees fearfully quiet for any length of time. It’s clear that while Apple offers admiral benefits packages for its corporate employees, its hourly retail workers (and the workers on the other end of its supply chain, assembling its prized iGadgets) are not treated as well.
Apple is the second most profitable company in the world and recently announced second quarter profits of $7.75 billion dollars, up 12% since the same time last year. The company touts itself as a leader of social and environmental responsibility, however, in reality, Apple’s labor record seems to align more closely with that of Walmart.
This can’t go on. Send Apple a message>>
In the “letter” box you can add your concerns for workers in the U.S. as well as overseas.
Apple Facing Another Class-Action Suit by Employees, Wall Street Journal
Today, the Green America Better Paper Project and Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) are excited to announce that National Geographic is using recycled fiber in the pages of several of their publications – including their flagship publication that reaches over 4 million readers!
National Geographic’s move was the result of several years of assistance from the Better Paper Project and allies. Last year, with the support of the Better Paper Project and NRDC, National Geographic published a study finding that in 14 out of 14 environmental categories, recycled fiber is superior to virgin fiber in magazines. One year later, National Geographic now has plans in place to increase the amount of recycled fiber in their magazines. Their recycled paper use expansion means that more than 1,000 new tons of recycled paper will be used each year.
As a magazine reader, your opinion makes a difference to the publisher. Consumer concern played a big role in encouraging National Geographic to move to recycled fiber, and now it is very important to use your voice with other publishers – most of whom still use paper only of virgin fiber.
We’re asking all Green Americans to let the publishers of your favorite magazines know that you want them to use paper with recycled fiber. (Not sure if your magazine is using recycled paper? Check here to see a list of the leaders in the industry.)
You can send your message to them in any (or all) of the following ways:
- Write a letter to the editor – you can usually find an email or mailing address for the editor in the magazine or on their website. We’ve included the emails of a few popular publications below.
- Post to the magazine’s Facebook page.
- Send a “Tweet” to the editor using their Twitter address.
Follow the steps below to take action.
1. Letter to the Editor
Send To: Your favorite magazines
Subject: Are you using recycled paper?
I’ve recently learned that National Geographic Society (NGS) is beginning to use recycled paper in all the pages of their photography-centric flagship, National Geographic Magazine. I’d like to ask you if you are using recycled paper in your magazine, and if not, I strongly urge you to begin doing so.
Using recycled paper is critical to protecting the forests and biodiversity impacted when trees are logged for paper production and use. A life-cycle assessment (LCA) commissioned by NGS demonstrates that in all fourteen categories studied—including energy, greenhouse gas emissions, water use, etc. – recycled paper has a lower impact on the environment than traditional virgin tree fiber paper.
NGS worked closely with the Green America Better Paper Project to thoroughly study this issue. I encourage you to reach out to the Better Paper Project (www.betterpaper.org) for assistance and begin using recycled paper as soon as possible.
Thanks for your attention to this important issue.
PS – You can contact the Better Paper Project Director, Frank Locantore by email and phone: email@example.com, 202-872-5308
2. Post to Facebook
Here are some sample posts you can use to comment on a magazine’s Facebook page:
- Great publication. Do you print on recycled paper? I’d love to know that you are helping protect our forests and climate. Go to www.BetterPaper.org to find out how.
- Love this article. I want to love it more – can you tell me if it is printed on recycled paper? Go to www.BetterPaper.org to find out the benefits of recycled fiber.
Please contact Frank Locantore at the Better Paper Project (firstname.lastname@example.org) if you get a response from a publisher.
3. Send a Tweet
We understand if you are resisting the plethora of social media. But, in the magazine world, Twitter has become a really useful tool for the editors and writers to communicate with their audience. If you use Twitter, please consider sending some “Tweets.” Here are a few examples:
- You can help protect #forests, #climate, & #communities by using #recycled paper in [insert magazine Twitter name] #magazine.
- #whatsinyourpaper [insert magazine Twitter name]? Please contact @BetterPaperProj if you need help switching to #recycled #paper
- I love your [insert magazine Twitter name] magazine, but hate hurting the planet. Do you use #recycled paper? Ask @BetterPaperProj for help.
Thanks for all you do to make this a greener world!
Contact Information for Several Popular US Magazines
(If your favorite mags are not listed below, you can find contact information for the editor on most publisher websites and Facebook pages through Google).
Co-authored by Joey Friedman
After undercover investigations and resulting allegations of underage workers in one of Samsung’s supplier factories, Samsung has quickly made public response to this issue. Repeatedly pledging a “zero tolerance policy”, Samsung has currently suspended their involvement with Shinyang Electronic Co. Ltd, in Dongguan, China. Until recently, Shinyang produced phone covers and parts for Samsung. It’s a South Korean-invested facility which hires about 40% temporary workers, all reportedly under the age of 35.
Although Samsung has conducted its own audits of this factory (three since 2013, the most recent on June 25, 2014), the company uncovered no cases of child labor. China Labor Watch (CLW), however, found at least five children working on one production line in this facility, and estimate there could be as many as twenty children working on that line and more throughout the facility.
Samsung’s failure to notice such gross violations during multiple visits to Shinyang certainly questions the rigor and effectiveness of these audits. In response to the allegations made by CLW, Samsung launched another investigation last week and reported finding evidence of illegal hiring processes. If Samsung’s investigation concludes that illegal hiring practices were indeed used, Samsung is threatening to permanently terminate its involvement with Shinyang.
In an effort to completely eradicate child labor within electronic factories, it is reassuring to see such an adamant response from Samsung’s team. However, the repercussions that could result from termination would leave workers worse off. Most imminently, the reported 1,200 Chinese workers in this facility could immediately lose their jobs, as Samsung is a major purchaser from this facility.
Cutting ties also relieves a lot of responsibility from Samsung. Other major electronics factories have formal child labor remediation policies. Apple, for example, requires that suppliers found to be employing underage workers must return children to school, finance their education and continue to provide income.
Shinyang’s violations reach beyond underage workers. All workers—adults, minors, and children—are underpaid, overworked, malnourished and forced into hazardous situations. A strong child labor remediation process, along with an increased hourly wage, and overtime that respects national limits would go a long way to make Shinyang a better place to work.
As Samsung considers next steps with Shinyang, we strongly urge the company to invest more in Shinyang and reform the factory so that it is a decent place to work. Terminating business with this factory is just a temporary solution to a systemic problem. The high demand and low prices that Samsung imposes on its supplier factories indirectly pushes them to seek out the cheapest labor possible, and in this unfortunate instance, children.
- Another Samsung Supplier Exploiting Child Labor (CLW’s Report)
- Samsung Blog Post – July 14
- Samsung Blog Post – July 10